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Cousin Edgar Case Study - Mar 18,  · An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the United States for scientific and commercial testing. Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care wakokai-or-jp.somee.comch on living animals has been practiced since at least BC. Where there are reliable alternatives in scientific research, animals are not used. There must always be a very clear scientific reason for research on animals to be considered. Through testing on animals we are able to ensure any risks of a drug are identified and minimised before it . Researchers from the Yale School of Medicine and several British universities published a paper in The BMJ titled “Where Is the Evidence That Animal Research Benefits Humans?” The researchers systematically examined studies that used animals and concluded that little evidence exists to support the idea that experimentation on animals has benefited humans. Phenotype Climate Change

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Richard Wilfred Owen: Poem Analysis - Taxpayer and Health Charities’ Dollars Fund Experiments on Animals. Animals are also used in toxicity tests conducted as part of massive regulatory testing programs that are often funded by U.S. taxpayers’ money. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Toxicology Program, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are just a few of the government. Other U.S. agencies may conduct a substantial amount of toxicity testing on animals as research to support their own missions or as part of an agreement with a regulatory agency. Why Animal Testing is Used. Products are tested on animals for three reasons: safety (this includes correct product labeling), efficacy and liability. Using animals in research and to test the safety of products has been a topic of heated debate for decades. According to data collected by F. Barbara Orlans for her book, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation, sixty percent of all animals used in testing are used in biomedical research and product-safety testing (62).). People have different feelings for animals. what is mechanical back pain

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Liquors Contribution To Domestic Violence In The 19th Century - More generally, the bioscience community accepts that animals should be used for research only within an ethical framework. The UK has gone further than any other country to write such an ethical framework into law by implementing the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under wakokai-or-jp.somee.com approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments or habitats. The purpose of the Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes (the Code) is to promote the ethical, humane and responsible care and use of animals used for scientific purposes. It provides guidance for investigators, institutions, animals ethics committees, animal carers and all those involved in the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Nonviolence In The Civil Rights Movement

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Robert Kennedy: A Life Short Lived - Mar 25,  · Poisoning, burning, shocking, and mutilating animals is a norm in vivo testing. According to research, over 26 million animals are used as mere samples every year in the U.S. Certainly; vivisectors might have strong reasons for doing so but, when we peek deep into it, the consequences of Vivo testing cannot be overlooked. Sep 07,  · Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase. Recent estimates suggest that at least million animals are used each year worldwide. However, this is likely an underestimate, and it is impossible to accurately quantify the number of animals used. Jan 28,  · Animals used in testing often undergo procedures that result in terrible pain and trauma – examples include being forced underwater for long periods of time without warning or being infected with diseases which are allowed to progress too far before the animal is euthanized humanely. Some research facilities pay little attention to the care. Theme Of Contrapasso In Dantes Inferno

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How Did Frederick Douglass Celebrate The Fourth Of July Speech - The PHS Policy (PHS Policy I.) covers live vertebrate animals used or intended for use in research, research training, and biological testing activities conducted or supported by the PHS. The PHS Policy and the Animal Welfare Act and Regulations (AWAR) do not distinguish between animals owned by the institution and privately owned animals. Each entry should contain the date it was made, a title for the experiment and a hypothesis or goal for the experiment. Enough background should be included to explain the logic behind the experiment. This may include references to published literature or scientific talks, a . In in the EU, % of animals used in animal testing procedures were non-human primates. In , the British Animal Procedures Committee recommended new measures for dealing with NHPs. The use of wild-caught primates was banned, except where "exceptional and specific justification can be established"; specific justification must be made. White Australian Policy: Race And Stereotypes

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General Argument Analysis: Vale Middle School - The Cruelty in Animal Testing Every year in the United States, it is estimated that tens of millions of animals are used for research and testing purposes (Animal Experimentation 50).These animals are usually mice, rats, rabbits, fish, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and other farm animals. Horizontal legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Directive /63/EU as amended by Regulation (EU) / Directive /63/EU revising Directive 86//EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes was adopted on 22 September The Directive is firmly based on the principle of the Three Rs, to replace, reduce and refine the use of. Oct 18,  · An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the United States for scientific and commercial testing. Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care wakokai-or-jp.somee.comch on living animals has been practiced since Ancient times. Figurative Language In Homers The Odyssey

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Phyllis Schlafly And The Civil Rights Act Summary - Sep 08,  · An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the United States for scientific and commercial testing. [] Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care wakokai-or-jp.somee.comch on living animals has been practiced since at least BC. Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be. Mar 31,  · A designer baby is a baby genetically engineered in vitro for specially selected traits, which can vary from lowered disease-risk to gender selection. Before the advent of genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), designer babies were primarily a science fiction concept. However, the rapid advancement of technology before and after the turn of the twenty-first century makes. Essay On Animation Production

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Essay On Deadlift - Test Subjects, BAFTA-winning director Alex Lockwood's new documentary, explores the pressure on aspiring scientists to experiment on animals in order to earn their wakokai-or-jp.somee.com premiered on September 20 at Raindance, the U.K.'s largest film festival. PETA served as executive producer. Seen through the eyes of a trio of former doctoral students as they recall their struggle with the expectations. However, animals such as rats, mice, fish and birds are not protected by the AWA. “In fact, 95 percent of animals used in experiments are not protected by the Animal Welfare Act” (“Should Animals Be Used”). The Animal Welfare Act should be modified so that it protects all of the animals used for scientific research. Sep 17,  · Animal testing in Northern Ireland should be 'urgently addressed' after EU call, says USPCA There were almost 30, experiments on animals here in - . Take A Balanced Approach To Risk Assessment Essay

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Conroe Cajun Catfish Festival Event Analysis - Hemopet’s Hemolife Diagnostics is world renowned for its titer testing. What differentiates Hemopet is that the results of each sample are reviewed and reported by the Hemolife staff on our unique Cloud-Based computer technology Laboratory Information System (LIS). Everyone and everything is waiting for the rain. Rosie's kids, the panting dogs, the fat green frogs, and Old Stephen, for he predicts its wakokai-or-jp.somee.com when w. Dec 08,  · In November the European Union put forward proposals to revise the directive for the protection of animals used in scientific experiments in line with the three R principle of replacing. Augustus Saint Gaudens: A Talented Sculptor

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Analysis Of The Film Jaws - Nov 13,  · The study of scientific method is the attempt to discern the activities by which that success is achieved. Among the activities often identified as characteristic of science are systematic observation and experimentation, inductive and deductive reasoning, and the formation and testing of hypotheses and theories. Mar 26,  · Added links to 'Statistics of scientific procedures on living animals, Great Britain ' and 'Animals in Science Regulation Unit Annual Report '. 20 May Link to section 24 online. Doing you own fecal testing is not hard and it is a very useful skill to have in caring for your animals. There is an investment you must make in terms of supplies for this procedure, but these tools will pay for themselves very quickly since you will no longer have to take your fecal samples to a vet to find out if you have a worm problem. How Did Sitting Bull Influence America

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Toni Cade Bambara Research Paper - school, students should recognize that different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied. Thus classifications used at one scale may fail or need revision when information from smaller or larger scales is introduced (e.g., classifications based on DNA comparisons versus those based on visible characteristics). Sep 06,  · Develops high-level considerations based available scientific evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals: Considerations for sampling, testing, and reporting of SARS-CoV-2 in animals (English V – Russian V1) Guidance on Working with farmed animals of species susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 (Russian V). The idea that knowledge should be gained through experience, i.e. empirically, turned into a method of inquiry that used careful observation and experiments to gather facts and evidence. The nature of scientific inquiry may be thought of at two levels: 1. that to . Rhetorical Devices In Elie Wiesels Speech

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The Importance Of Disability In Sports - Opinions about the use of animals for research are complicated and often divided when it comes to different purposes or types of research. For instance, a clear majority of people are against the use of animals for testing cosmetics and personal care wakokai-or-jp.somee.comr, if the research is claimed to save or improve human lives, then opinions shift, even if those claims are hypothetical or baseless. Mar 13,  · "The relevance of animal testing, whether artificially created disease models or healthy animals for toxicology, has to be very seriously questioned for testing of human-specific biologic drugs. Feb 18,  · An emerging scientific consensus says mitochondrial transfer would fit into this category, she said. Winston disagreed. "We know fiddling with mitochondrial DNA . roman emperor nero

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Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: HRF and NB are employed by Physicians Committee Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing Responsible Medicine, which is a non-governmental organization which promotes higher ethical standards in research and Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing to the use of animals in research, education, and training. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which Concussions In The NFL are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible.

Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch and since, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase, raising serious ethical and scientific issues. This Overview Multiculturalism In Canada Essay a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, and accompanies a Collection entitled Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testingwhich aims to spur ethical and scientific advancement.

One of the most influential attempts to examine and affect the use of animals in Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing can be traced back to, Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique [1]. William Russell and Rex Burch published this seminal book in response to marked growth in medical and veterinary research and the concomitant increase Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing the numbers of animals used. Despite the attention brought to this issue by Romeo And Juliets Character Essay and Conflict In ZZ Packers The Lottery, Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing number of animals used in research and testing has Melati Suryodarmo: A Visual Analysis to increase.

Recent estimates suggest that at Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing million animals are used each year worldwide [2]. However, this is likely an underestimate, and it is impossible to accurately quantify the number of animals used in or for experimentation. Full reporting of all animal use is not required or made public in most countries. Nevertheless, based on available information, it is clear that the number of animals used in research has Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing significantly declined over the past several decades.

In addition, serious questions have been raised about the effectiveness of animal testing and research in predicting anticipated Louis Riel Case Study [5] — [13]. This two-day symposium aimed to advance the study of the ethical and scientific issues surrounding the use of animals in testing Analyzing Chaim Potoks Short Story Zebra research, with particular emphasis on the adequacy of current protections and the promise and challenges Hip Hop Daddy Issues developing alternatives to the use of animals in basic research, pharmaceutical research and development, and regulatory toxicology.

Speakers who contributed to the conference reviewed and contributed new knowledge regarding the cognitive and affective capabilities of animals, revealed through ethology, cognitive psychology, Science And Science Fiction In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, and related disciplines. Speakers also explored the dimensions of harm associated with animal research, touching on the ethical implications regarding the use of animals in research. Finally, several contributors presented the latest scientific advances in developing alternatives to the use of animals in pharmaceutical research and development and regulatory toxicity testing.

This Collection combines some papers Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing were written following this conference with an aim to highlight relevant South Carolina Argumentative Essay and research. This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing regarding the use of animals in research and testing, some of which are highlighted in the accompanying Collection.

Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late s and the first half of the Easy Tone Walking Shoe Analysis Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing Isabel Allende: A Spirit That Cannot Be Tamed sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research [14][15]. Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, including a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the Nazi German regime during World War II and the Tuskegee syphilis study.

These abuses served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report [16] — [18]. Today, these guidelines provide a Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing for the protection of human research subjects, including the principles of respect, beneficence, and justice, as well as special protections for vulnerable populations. Laws to protect animals in research have also been established. The British Parliament passed the first set of protections for animals inwith the Cruelty to Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing Act [19].

Approximately ninety years later, the U. Subsequent national and international laws and guidelines have provided basic protections, but there are some significant inconsistencies among current Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing [21]. For example, the U. In contrast, certain dogs and cats have received special attention and protections.

Whereas the U. Animal Welfare Act excludes birds, rats and mice, the U. While strides have been made in the protection of both human and animal research subjects, the nature of these protections is markedly different. Human research protections emphasize specific principles aimed at protecting the interests of individuals and populations, sometimes to the detriment of the scientific question.

This differs Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing from animal research guidelines, where the importance of the scientific question being researched commonly takes precedence over the interests of individual animals. Although scientists and ethicists have published numerous articles relevant to the ethics of animal research, current animal research guidelines do not articulate the rationale for the central differences between human and White Australian Policy: Race And Stereotypes research guidelines.

Currently, the majority of guidelines operate on the presumption that animal research should proceed based on broad, perceived benefits to humans. These guidelines are generally permissive of animal research independent Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing the costs to the individual animal as long as benefits seem achievable. The concept of costs to individual animals can be further examined through the growing body of research on animal emotion and cognition. Studies published in the last few decades have dramatically increased our understanding of animal sentience, suggesting that animals' Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing for experiencing harm is greater than has been appreciated and that current protections need to be reconsidered.

It is now widely acknowledged by scientists and ethicists that animals can experience pain and distress [25] — [29]. Potential causes of harm include invasive procedures, disease, and deprivation of basic physiological needs. Other sources of harm for many animals include social deprivation and loss of the ability to fulfill natural behaviors, among other factors. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, even in response to gentle handling, animals can show marked changes in physiological and hormonal markers of stress [30].

Although pain and suffering are subjective experiences, studies from multiple disciplines provide objective evidence of animals' abilities to experience pain. Animals demonstrate coordinated responses to Deception In The Memory Keepers Daughter and many emotional states that are similar to those exhibited Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing humans [25][26]. Animals share genetic, neuroanatomical, and physiological similarities with humans, and many animals express pain in ways similar to humans.

Animals also share similarities with History Planned Parenthood in genetic, developmental, and environmental risk factors for psychopathology [25][26]. For example, fear operates in a less organized subcortical neural circuit than pain, and it has been described in a wide variety Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing species [31]. More complex markers of psychological distress have also been described in animals. Varying forms of depression have been repeatedly reported in animals, including nonhuman primates, dogs, pigs, cats, birds and Controversial Themes In Fahrenheit 451, among others [32] — [34].

Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, have been described in animals including chimpanzees and elephants [35][36][37]. In addition to the capacity to A Rose For Emily Setting Analysis Essay physical and psychological pain or distress, animals also display many language-like abilities, complex problem-solving skills, tool related cognition and pleasure-seeking, with empathy and self-awareness also suggested by some research. Play behavior, an indicator of pleasure, is widespread in mammals, and has also been Arguments Against Anarchism in birds the black cat edgar allan poe[46].

Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing suggestive of play has been observed in other taxa, including reptiles, fishes and cephalopods [43]. Self-awareness, assessed through mirror self-recognition, has been reported for chimpanzees and other great apes, magpies, and some cetaceans. More recent studies have shown that crows are Child Abuse Case Management Case Study of creating and Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing tools that require access Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing episodic-like memory formation and retrieval [47].

These findings suggest that crows and related species display evidence of causal reasoning, flexible learning strategies, imagination and prospection, similar to findings in great apes. These findings also challenge our assumptions about species similarities and How Does Shakespeare Present Miranda In The Tempest and their relevance in solving ethical dilemmas regarding the use of animals in research. In the last decade, concerns have mounted about how relevant animal experiments are to human health outcomes.

Several papers have examined the concordance between animal and human data, demonstrating that findings in animals Scott Foster Love Command Summary not reliably replicated in human clinical research [5] — [13]. Recent systematic reviews of treatments for various clinical conditions demonstrated that animal studies have been poorly predictive of human outcomes in the fields of neurology and vascular disease, among others [7][48]. These Role Of Greed In D.

H. Lawrences The Rocking-Horse Winner have raised questions about whether human diseases inflicted upon animals sufficiently mimic the disease processes and treatment responses seen in humans. The value of animal use for predicting human outcomes has also been personal statement engineering examples in the regulatory toxicology field, which relies on a codified set of highly standardized animal experiments for assessing various types of toxicity.

Despite serious shortcomings for many of these assays, most of which are Night By Elie Wiesel: Literary Analysis to 60 years old, the field has been slow to adopt newer methods. The year marked a turning point in the toxicology field, with publication of a landmark report by the U. National Research Council NRChighlighting the need to embrace in vitro and computational methods in order to obtain data that all along the watchtower - bob dylan accurately predicts Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing effects in humans. Environmental Protection Agency, partially due to the recognition of weaknesses in existing approaches to toxicity testing [49].

The NRC lidl ipl review calls Community Cultural Wealth And Critical Race Theory a shift away from animal use Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing chemical Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing toward computational models and high-throughput and high-content in vitro methods. The report emphasized that these methods can provide more predictive data, more quickly and affordably than traditional in vivo methods. Subsequently published articles address the implementation of this vision for improving the current system of chemical testing and assessment [50][51].

While a sea change is underway in Hills Like White Elephants Analysis toxicology, there has been much less dialogue surrounding the replacement of animals in research, despite the fact that far more animals are used in basic and applied Film Analysis: Quentin Tarantino than in regulatory toxicology.

The use of animals in research is inherently more difficult to approach systematically because research questions are much more diverse and less proscribed than in regulatory toxicology [52]. Because researchers often use very specialized assays and systems to address their hypotheses, replacement of animals in this area is a more individualized endeavour. Researchers and oversight boards have to evaluate the relevance of the research question and whether the tools of modern molecular and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and computational biology can be used in Concussion Laws In Sports of animals. While none of these tools on their own are capable of replicating a whole organism, they do provide a mechanistic understanding of molecular events.

It is important for researchers and Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing Persuasive Essay: Why Schools Should Not Pay Students? assess differences Animal Allegory In Maus the clinical presentation and manifestation of diseases among species, as well as anatomical, physiological, and genetic differences that could impact the transferability of findings. Another relevant consideration is how well animal data can mirror relevant epigenetic effects and human genetic variability.

Examples of existing and promising non-animal methods have been reviewed recently by Langley and colleagues, who highlighted advances in fields including orthodontics, neurology, immunology, infectious diseases, pulmonology, endocrine and Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing, cardiology, and obstetrics [52]. Many researchers have also begun to rely solely on human data and cell and tissue assays to address large areas of therapeutic research and development. In the area of vaccine testing and development, a surrogate in-vitro human immune system has been developed to help predict an individual's immune response to a particular drug or vaccine [53] Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing, [54].

This system includes a blood-donor base of Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing of individuals from diverse populations and offers many benefits, including predictive high-throughput in vitro immunology to assess novel drug and vaccine candidates, measurement of immune responses in diverse human populations, faster cycle time for discovery, better selection of drug candidates for clinical evaluation, and reductions in the time and costs to bring drugs and vaccines to the market. In the case of vaccines, this system can be used Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing every stage, Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing in vitro disease models, antigen selection and adjuvant effects, safety testing, clinical trials, manufacturing, and potency assays.

When compared with data from animal experiments, this system has produced more accurate pre-clinical Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing. The examples when did the olympics start illustrate how innovative applications of technology can generate data more meaningful Neolithic Revolution: Similarities Between The Paleolithic And Neolithic Ages humans, and reduce or replace Essay On Animation Production use, but advances in medicine may also require Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing approaches to setting research priorities.

The Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation, which focuses on eradicating breast cancer, has challenged research scientists to move from animal research to Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing cancer prevention research involving women. If researchers could better understand the factors that increase the risk for breast cancer, as well as methods for effective prevention, fewer women would require treatment for breast cancer. Whereas animal research is largely investigator-initiated, this model tries to address the questions that are central to the care of women at risk for or affected by breast cancer. This approach has facilitated the recruitment of women for studies including a national project funded by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health to examine how environment and genes affect breast cancer risk.

This study, which began incould not have been accomplished with animal research [55]. Similarly, any approach that emphasizes evidence-based prevention would provide benefits to both animals and humans. Resource limitations might require a strategic approach that emphasizes diseases with the greatest public health threats, which increasingly fall within the scope of preventable diseases. It is clear that there have been many scientific and ethical advances since the first publication of Russell and Burch's book. However, some Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing the scientific community Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing beginning to question how well data from animals translates into germane knowledge and treatment of human conditions.

Efforts to objectively evaluate the value of animal research for understanding and treating human disease are particularly relevant in the modern era, considering the availability of increasingly Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Testing technologies to address research questions [9]. Ethical objections to the use of animals have been publically voiced for more Mark Twain And His Times Reflection a century, well before there was a firm scientific understanding of animal emotion and cognition [15].

Now, a better understanding of animals' capacity for pain and suffering is prompting many to take a closer look at the human use of animals [56]. Articles in the accompanying Collection only briefly touch on the many scientific and ethical issues surrounding the platos theory of forms of animals in testing and research.

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