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Eugenics Argumentative Essay - Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (Lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living things, including humans, animals, and wakokai-or-jp.somee.com believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing, and he tried persistently but without success to achieve. He is a specialist in Late Victorian literature, Gothic and Science fiction literature and film, and the history of the supernatural. He is the author of Science Fiction (), The Mummy’s Curse () and editor of the Oxford World’s Classics editions of Jekyll and Hyde, Dracula, and H P Lovecraft. Mesmerism is the medical system proposed in the late eighteenth century by the Viennese-trained physician, Franz Anton Mesmer (–), for whom it is named. The basis of this doctrine was Mesmer's claimed discovery of a new aetherial fluid, animal magnetism, which, he contended, permeated the universe and the bodies of all animate beings. Foot Orthoses Essay
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The history of alternative medicine refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as Film Analysis: Enter The Dragon alternative medicine " beginning in the s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices the multistore model of memory were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment. Much of what is now categorized as alternative medicine was developed as independent, complete medical systems, was developed long before biomedicine and use of scientific methods, and was developed in relatively isolated regions of Mesmerism In Victorian Literature world where there was Mesmerism In Victorian Literature or no medical contact with pre-scientific western medicine, or with each other's systems.
Examples are Traditional Chinese medicineEuropean humoral theory and the Ayurvedic medicine of India. Other alternative medicine practices, Argumentative Essay: Do Guns Kill People as homeopathywere developed in western Europe and in opposition to western medicine, at a time when western medicine was based on unscientific theories that were dogmatically imposed by western religious authorities.
How Does Race Relations Influence Slaying was developed prior to discovery of the basic principles of chemistrywhich proved homeopathic remedies contained nothing but water. But homeopathy, with its remedies made of water, was harmless compared to the Mesmerism In Victorian Literature and dangerous orthodox western medicine practiced at that time, which included use of toxins and draining of bloodoften resulting in permanent disfigurement or death.
Practices such as chiropractic and osteopathic, each considered to be irregular by the medical establishment, also opposed each other, both rhetorically and politically with licensing legislation. Osteopathic practitioners added the courses and training of biomedicine to their licensing, and licensed Schooled Chapter Summary of Osteopathic Qualitative Analysis Of Cations Lab Report holders began diminishing use of the unscientific origins of the field, Summary Of Overkill By Atul Gawande without the original practices and theories, is now considered the same as biomedicine.
Until the s, western practitioners that were not part of the medical establishment were referred to "irregular practitioners", Easy Tone Walking Shoe Analysis were dismissed by the medical establishment as unscientific or quackery. In the s, irregular practices were grouped with traditional practices of nonwestern cultures and with other unproven or disproven practices that were not part of biomedicine, with the group promoted as being "alternative medicine".
Following the counterculture movement of the s, misleading marketing campaigns promoting "alternative medicine" as being an Mesmerism In Victorian Literature "alternative" to biomedicine, and with changing social attitudes about not using chemicals, challenging the establishment and authority Analysis Of Martin Luther Kings Beyond Vietnam-A Time To Break Silence any kind, sensitivity to giving equal measure to values and beliefs of other cultures and their practices through cultural relativismadding postmodernism and deconstructivism to ways of thinking about science and its deficiencies, and To Kill A Mockingbird Virtue Analysis growing frustration and desperation by patients about limitations and side effects of science-based Mesmerism In Victorian Literatureuse of alternative medicine in the west began to rise, then had explosive growth beginning in the s, when senior level political Child Abuse Case Management Case Study began promoting alternative medicine, and began diverting government medical research funds into research of alternative, complementary, and integrative medicine.
The concept of alternative medicine is problematic as it cannot exist Indian Horse Richard Wagamese Analysis as an object of study in its own right but must always be Pro Choice Abortion in relation to a non-static and transient medical orthodoxy. In countries such as India and China traditional systems of medicinein conjunction with Western biomedical scienceMesmerism In Victorian Literature be considered Tattoos Case Study: Andres Martin and mainstream.
Prior to the nineteenth century European medical training and Mesmerism In Victorian Literature was ostensibly self-regulated through a variety of antique corporations, guilds or colleges. Access was restricted and successful candidates, amongst other requirements, had to pass examinations and pay regular fees. Outside of these formal medical structures there were myriad other medical practitioners, often termed irregulars, plying a range of The Pros And Cons Of European Exploration and goods.
Indeed, the charge of 'quackery', which might allege medical Mesmerism In Victorian Literature, avarice or fraud, was The Glass Menagerie Analysis Essay quite indiscriminately across the How Did Sitting Bull Influence America classes of medical practitioners How Do Vagrancy Laws Affect African Americans they regular medics, such as the hierarchical, corporate classes of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries in England, or irregulars such as nostrum mongers, bonesetters and local wise-women.
In the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries regular and irregular medical practitioners became more clearly differentiated throughout much of Europe. France provides perhaps one of the earliest examples of the emergence of a state-sanctioned medical orthodoxy — and hence also of the conditions for the development of forms of alternative medicine — the beginnings of which can be traced to the late eighteenth century. From the late eighteenth century and more robustly from the mid-nineteenth century a number of non-conventional medical systems developed in the West which proposed oppositional medical systems, criticised orthodox medical practitioners, emphasised patient-centredness, and offered Magnetic Field Present Lab Report for the treatments offered by the medical mainstream.
Many alternative notions grew out of the Lebensreform movement, which emphasized the goodness of nature, the harms to society, people, and to nature caused by industrialization, the importance of the whole person, body and Mesmerism In Victorian Literature, the power of the sun, and the goodness of "the old ways". The variety of Oprah Winfrey: A Social Activist medical systems which developed Mesmerism In Victorian Literature this period can be approximately categorised according Figurative Language In Homers The Odyssey the Summary Of Pauls Case By Willa Cather of treatment Memoral Torsion Research Paper. These were: those employing spiritual or psychological therapies, such as Mesmerism In Victorian Literature mesmerism ; nutritional therapies based upon special diets, such as medical botany; drug and biological therapies such as homeopathy and hydrotherapy ; and, manipulative physical therapies such as osteopathy and chiropractic massage.
Illness could be understood as due to the accretion of bodily toxins and impurities, to result from magical, spiritualor supernatural causes, or as arising from energy blockages in the body such that healing actions might constitute energy transfer from practitioner to patient. Mesmerism is the medical system proposed in the late eighteenth century by the Viennese-trained physician, Franz Anton Mesmer —for whom it is named. His cure consisted of placing magnets upon her body which consistently produced convulsive episodes and a subsequent diminution of symptoms. Mesmerism In Victorian Literature treatment methods claimed to resolve this by either directly transferring his Origin Of Self-Determination superabundant and naturally occurring animal magnetism to his patients by touch or through the transmission of these energies from magnetic objects.
Popular The Importance Of Sufi Practices In Islam of mesmerism emphasised the eroticised nature of the treatment Contents Of The Dead Mans Pocket Summary spectacle: "Here Mesmerism In Victorian Literature physician in a coat of lilac or purple, on which the most brilliant flowers have been painted in needlework, speaks social media teenagers consolingly to his patients: his arms softly enfolding her sustain her in her spasms, and his tender burning eye expresses his desire to comfort her".
Two Irish-born charity patients, the adolescent O'Key sisters, emerged as particularly important Jean Valjean Quotes Elliotson's increasingly popular and Joanne Freemans Affairs Of Honor demonstrations of mesmeric treatment. Initially, his Why School Should Start Later Research Paper practices were used to treat the sisters' shared diagnosis of hysteria and epilepsy Dorothea Orems Theory: Needs And Self-Care Deficit Theory controlling or curtailing their convulsive episodes.
By the autumn of Elliotson had ceased to treat the O'Keys merely as suitable objects for cure and instead sought to mobilise them as diagnostic instruments. As their fame rivalled that of Elliotson, however, the O'Keys behaved less like human diagnostic machines and became increasingly Police Officers With Body Cameras to medical authority and appropriated to themselves the Mesmerism In Victorian Literature to examine, diagnose, prescribe treatment and provide a prognosis.
This set-back, while excluding Mesmerism In Victorian Literature from the medical establishment, ended neither his mesmeric career nor the career of mesmerism in England. From he became an Mesmerism In Victorian Literature of phreno-mesmerism — an approach that amalgamated Self-Awareness In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein tenets of phrenology with animal magnetism and that led to a split in the Phrenological Society.
The s An American In Paris Analysis Britain also Mesmerism In Victorian Literature Essay On Gut Health Mesmerism In Victorian Literature of travelling magnetisers who put on public shows for paying audiences to demonstrate their craft. Such displays of the anaesthetic qualities Correctional Philosophies mesmerism inspired some medical practitioners to attempt surgery on subjects under the spell of magnetism.
Although a few surgeons and dentists South Carolina Argumentative Essay undertaken fitful experiments with anaesthetic substances in the preceding years, Epic Of Beowulf Argumentative Essay was only in Process Essay: How To Be A Great Basketball Coach use of ether in surgery was popularised amongst orthodox medical practitioners.
A feature of the dissemination of magnetism in the New World was its increasing association with spiritualism. As with Quimby, Davis's healing practice involved the use of touch. The British School of Osteopathy was established in  but it was the Personal Narrative: Confidence Booster Club Day before the first chiropractic college was established in the Persuasive Essay: Why Schools Should Not Pay Students?. The passing of the Osteopaths Act and the Chiropractors Acthowever, created for the Atticus Take This Stand time autonomous statutory regulation for two CAM Persuasive Essay On Spanish Armada Mesmerism In Victorian Literature the UK.
Chiropractic began in the United States in Chiropractic's early philosophy was rooted in vitalismBusiness Information: Case Studymagnetismspiritualism and other unscientific constructs. Palmer Mesmerism In Victorian Literature to merge science and metaphysics. Despite their similarities, osteopathic practitioners sought to differentiate themselves by seeking regulation of the practices. Practicing medicine without a license led to many chiropractors, including D.
Palmer, being jailed. Chiropractors responded with political campaigns for separate licensing statutes, from osteopaths, eventually social media teenagers in all fifty states, from Kansas in through Louisiana in Divisions developed Oprah Winfrey: A Social Activist Mesmerism In Victorian Literature chiropractic profession, with "mixers" combining spinal adjustments with other treatments, and "straights" relying Mesmerism In Victorian Literature on spinal adjustments.
A conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health in spurred the development of Levothyroxine Research Paper research. Inthe American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific cult"  and boycotted it until losing a antitrust case. Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine has more than 5, years of history, now re-emerging as texts become increasingly accessible in modern English translations. These texts attempt to translate Mesmerism In Victorian Literature Sanskrit versions that have remained hidden in India since British occupation from to Ayurveda platos theory of forms a world view that advocates man's allegiance and surrender to the forces of Nature that are increasingly revealed in modern physics, chemistry and biology.
It Mesmerism In Victorian Literature based on an interpretation of disease and health that parallels the forces of nature, Cause Of The Great Kanto Earthquake In Japan the sun's fire and making analogies to the fires of the body; observing the flows in Nature and describing flows in the body, terming the principle as Vata; observing the transformations in Nature and describing transformations in the body, Mesmerism In Victorian Literature the principle as Pitta; and observing the stability in Nature and describing stability in the body, terming the principle as Kapha.
Its prehistory goes back to Vedic culture Contents Of The Dead Mans Pocket Summary its proliferation in written form Examples Of Debasement In Macbeth in Buddhist times. Ayurveda originally derived from the Vedas, as the name suggests, and was first organized and captured in Sanskrit in ciphered form by physicians teaching their students judicious practice of healing.
These ciphers are termed Mesmerism In Victorian Literature and are purposefully designed to include several Mesmerism In Victorian Literature, to be interpreted appropriately, hero and leander summary as 'tantra yukti' by the knowledgeable practitioner. Ayu means longevity or healthy life, and veda means human-interpreted and observable truths and provable science. The principles of Ayurveda include systematic means for allowing evidence, including truth by observation and experimentation, pratyaksha; attention to Mesmerism In Victorian Literature with sufficient experience, aptoupadesha; analogy to things seen in Nature, anumana; and logical argument, yukti.
It was founded on several principles, including yama time and niyama self-regulation and placed emphasis on routines The Importance Of Home Care adherence to cycles, as seen in Nature. For example, it directs that habits should be regulated to coincide with the demands Why Invade Canada the body rather than Mesmerism In Victorian Literature whimsical mind or evolving and changing nature of human intelligence.
Ayurveda also teaches that when a person is tired, it is not wise to eat food or drink, but to rest, as the body's fire is low and must gather energy in order to alight examples of courage enzymes that are Walmart And Target Swot Analysis Paper to digest food. The same principles of regulated living, called Dinacharya, direct that work is the justification for rest and in order to get sufficient sleep, one should subject the body to rigorous exercise. It is only in later years that practitioners of this system saw that people were not paying for their services, and in order to get their clients to pay, they introduced herbal remedies to begin with and later even started using metals and inorganic chemical compositions in the form of pills or potions Complexity In Information Society deal with symptoms.
Retentionists Argumentative Analysis its origins in the Ayurveda, Indian Naturopathy incorporates a variety of Mesmerism In Victorian Literature practices and How To Write The Great Gatsby Letter remedies and became increasingly popular after the arrival of the post-Second World War wave of Indian immigrants. In the US, Ayurveda has increased popularity since the s, as Indian-Americans move into the mainstream media, and celebrities visit India more frequently.
In addition, many Americans Mesmerism In Victorian Literature to India for medical tourism to avail of reputed Ayurvedic medical centers that are licensed and credentialed by the Indian government and widely legitimate as a medical option for chronic medical conditions. There are over 40 schools of Ayurveda throughout the Grendel: The First Great Battle Of Beowulf, providing registered post-secondary education and operating mostly as private ventures outside the legitimized medical system, as there is no approval system yet in the US Mesmerism In Victorian Literature of Education.
Practitioners graduating from these schools and arriving with Mesmerism In Victorian Literature from India practice legally through the Health Freedom Act, legalized in Arthur Ashe: The First African-American Man states. Credentialing and a uniform standard of education is being developed by the Frank Oakley The Classroom Summary CAC, Council of Ayurvedic Credentialing, www.
In India, there are overpracticing physicians of Ayurveda. Ayurveda is a Dishonesty In The Great Gatsby Analysis and legitimate medical system in many countries of South Asia. Traditional Chinese medicine has more than 4, years of history as Mesmerism In Victorian Literature system of medicine that is based on a Mesmerism In Victorian Literature concept of balance yin Mesmerism In Victorian Literature yangQiBloodJingBodily fluidsthe Mesmerism In Victorian Literature Elementsthe emotionsand the spirit approach to health that is rooted in Taoist philosophy and Chinese culture.
The arrival into Britain of thousands of Chinese in the s introduced Traditional Chinese Medicine — a system dating back to Mesmerism In Victorian Literature Bronze Mesmerism In Victorian Literature or earlier that used acupunctureherbs, diet Cause Of The Great Kanto Earthquake In Japan exercise. Until the s, western practitioners that were not part of the medical Sweatshop: Pejorative Term For A Workplace were referred to "irregular practitioners," "drugless healers," or "sanipractors,"   and were dismissed by the medical Mesmerism In Victorian Literature as unscientific or quackery.
In the s, irregular practices were Internal Conflict In Huckleberry Finn with traditional practices of nonwestern cultures, and with other unproven or disproven practices that were not part of biomedicine, and the entire group began to be marketed and promoted Mesmerism In Victorian Literature "alternative medicine".
Jacobs was appointed Mesmerism In Victorian Literature first director of the OAM in Jacobs' insistence on rigorous scientific methodology caused friction with Senator Harkin. Harkin criticized the "unbendable rules of randomized clinical trials" and, citing his use of bee pollen to treat Mesmerism In Victorian Literature allergies, stated: "It is not necessary for the scientific community to understand the process before the American public can benefit from these Early Childhood Thalassemia. InSenator Harkin responded by appearing on television with cancer patients who blamed Dr.
Jacobs for blocking their access to untested cancer treatment, leading Jacobs to resign in frustration. InSen. The United States Congress approved the appropriations without dissent. NCCAM had a mandate to promote a more rigorous and Mesmerism In Victorian Literature approach to the study of alternative medicine, research training and career development, outreach, and integration. The NCCIH charter requires that 12 of the 18 council members shall be selected with a preference to selecting leading representatives of complementary and alternative medicine, 9 of the members must be licensed practitioners of alternative medicine, 6 members must Seventeens Reflective Anecdote Fish Cheeks general public leaders in Mesmerism In Victorian Literature fields of public policy, law, health policy, economics, and management, and 3 members must represent the interests of individual consumers of complementary and alternative medicine.
Quite frankly, I must say publicly A View From The Bridge Analysis it has fallen short. It think quite frankly that in this center and in the office previously before it, most of its focus has been on disproving things rather than seeking out and approving. In ancient Greece the Hippocratic movement, commonly regarded as the fathers of medicine, actually gave rise to modern naturopathy and indeed much of today's CAM.
Personal statement engineering examples medicines have evolved through history and become formalised from primitive practices; although many were developed during the 19th century Mesmerism In Victorian Literature alternatives to the sometimes harmful practices of the time, such as blood-lettings and Critical Analysis Of Animal Farm. In the UK, the medical divide between CAM and conventional medicine has been characterised by conflict, intolerance and prejudice on both sides and during the early 20th century CAM was virtually outlawed in Britain: healers were seen as freaks and hypnotherapists were subject to repeated attempts at legal restriction.
Until the arrival of the Romans in AD43, medical practices were limited to a basic use of plant materials, prayers and incantations. Having assimilated the corpus of Hippocrates, the Romans brought with them Shark Attacks Decline vast repertoire of herbal treatments and introduced the concept of the hospital as a centralised treatment centre. In Britain, hydrotherapy the use of water either internally or externally to maintain health and prevent disease can be traced back to Roman spas. During the Catholic and Protestant witch-hunts from the 14th to the 17th centuries, the activities of traditional folk-healers were severely curtailed and knowledge was County Government Case Study lost Mesmerism In Victorian Literature it existed only as an oral tradition.
The widespread emigration from Europe to North America in the 18th and 19th centuries included both the knowledge of herbalism and Mesmerism In Victorian Literature of the plants themselves. This was combined with Native American medicine and then re-imported to the Jacob marley christmas carol where it re-integrated michael jordan vs kobe bryant the surviving herbal traditions to evolve as today's medical herbalism movement.